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23个现在完成时的标志词(如to date)(参考词典)

兰等2022-01-20原创

当然ever,never,just(方才/刚刚),already(已经),yet(到目前为止),today,this morning/week/year也是可以使用现在完成时,并非是大多数原则。

——出现以下的词汇,通常使用“现在完成时”结构。

1)ever since,since,since then——3个

2)by now,so far,till/until now,up to now——5个

3)before,lately,recently——3个

4)in recent years;in the past——2个

5)in/for/over/during the last/past+时间段——2个

6)This/That/It is+最高级结构…(that)+从句用现完——1个

7)This/That/It is the first/second…time(that)+从句用现完——1个

8)This/That/It is the only…(that)+从句用现完——1个

9)不很常见的up to the present,to date,thus far——3个

10)不很常见的long ago,from——2个

——以上的划分是为了讲解记忆的方便而已。

1.ever since,since,since then——3个

ever since,since中的since可以是副词,也可以是介词、连词;

since then为介词+名词(或副词)结构

《朗文英语语法》第309页9.25.2

与since和for连用的现在完成时

since和for常与现在完成时连用,表示直到现在的时段。

since(+时点)可用作:

since连词:

Tom hasn‟t been home since he was a boy.汤姆从小就不在家了。

since副词:

I saw Fiona in May and I haven‟t seen her since.

我5月份见过菲奥娜,此后我就没有再见过她了。

since介词:

I‟ve lived here since 1980.自1980年起我就住在这儿。

since用作连词时,后面可跟一般过去时或现在完成时:

I retired in 1980 and came to live here.I‟ve lived here since I retired.

我于1980年退休后就搬到这里。我自退休后就一直住在这儿。

(即我调休的时点:1980年)

I have lived here for several years now and I‟ve made many new friends since I havelived here.

我已在这里住了好多年。从我在这里住下到现在,我已交了许多新朋友。(即一直到现在)

2.by now,so far,till/until now,up to now——5个

这几个是“到现在为止/到目前为主/迄今(为止)”,常使用现完——中考考点。

《高阶英语语法》(增补本杜永文编著)第295页0433

If he sent the letter to me last Wednesday,why have not I received it by now?

如果上个星期三他把信寄给我了,为什么到现在我还不曾收到?

《麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典》第1420页now词条

The meeting should have finished by now.会议现在应该已经结束了。

《剑桥高阶英汉双解词典》第785页far词条

so far:until now迄今为止;到目前为止

So far we‟ve made thirty-two thousand pounds.

到目前为止,我们已经赚了32 000英镑。

《麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典》第738页far词条

so far:until now迄今为止

So far we have restricted our attention to the local area.

迄今为止,我们都把注意力局限在当地。

《麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典》第1420页now词条

up to now/until now

Until now,we‟ve had very mild weather this winter.

我们今年冬天的天气一直到现在都比较暖和。

《COBUILD英汉双解词典》第2155页up词条

Up to now they‟ve had very little say.一直到现在他们还很少有发言权。

3.before(now),lately,recently——3个

before必须是副词词性,强调的是“从现在开始追溯到过去的一段时间”,使用现完;

recently与lately相近,含义有两个“最近的/近来的,不久前的”,因此前者的含义大多使用现完结构,后者的含义使用一般过去时结构。

《朗文英语语法》第308页9.25.1

Olga hasn‟t appeared on TV before now.奥尔加在此以前没有上过电视。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第176页before词条

before:adv.at an earlier time以前;过去

Haven‟t we met before?我们以前没见过?

We haven‟t had these problems before.我们以前从未碰倒过这些问题。

《英语词汇用法手册》(L.G.亚历山大编著)第159页late,lately词条

We haven‟t seen you lately.最近我们一直没见过你。(lately=近来)

《朗文当代高级英语辞典》第五版第2394页smile词条

I haven‟t had much to smile about lately.近来我没什么开心的事情。

《葛传槼英语惯用法词典》第475页recently词条5.

recently可与修饰属于完成时态或过去时态的动词。例如:

I(have)heard from him recently.

《COBUILD柯林斯英汉双解词典》辛克莱著第1612页recently词条

I haven‟t heard from her recently.近来我没有接到她的信。

4.in recent years;in the past——2个

上海高考英语2015年考查过in recent years这个结构;

in the past可以使用过去时与现在完成时等结构

《新概念英语》第二册第58课A blessing in disguise?是因祸得福吗?

The tree was planted near a church fifty years ago,but it is only in recent yearsthat ithas gained an evil reputation.

后半句事实上是个强调句,可理解为that it has gained an evil reputation only inrecent years.这里把recent对应于现在完成时源于此。

《麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典》第1059页in词条4

4c:within a period of time在(一段时间)之内:

Unemployment has risen by over 15%in the past year.

失业率在去年一年内上升了15%以上。

《现代英语用法词典》(修订版张道真主编)第1059页past词条

In the past I have had many jobs.(DCE)

In the past trains were pulled by steam-engines.(OSD)

5.in/for/over/during the last/past+时间段——2个

这个大结构大多使用现完,高考英语考查两处:

介词(与现完的搭配);现完(与介词结构的搭配)

6.This/That/It is+最高级结构…(that)+从句用现完——1个

——事实上,实际应用中未见得完全如此,但考试还是一个要求。

《朗文英语语法》第308页9.25.1

It‟s the most interesting book I‟ve ever read.这是我读过的最有意识的书。

《牛津英语用法指南》(第三版)第920页

It‟s one of the most interesting books I‟ve ever read.

这是我看过的最有意识的书中的一本。

《朗文英语语法》第40页

It‟s the silliest argument(that)I‟ve ever heard.这是我听说过的最愚蠢的论点。

Bach‟s the greatest composer that‟s(or who‟s)ever lived.巴赫是曾有过的最伟大的作曲家。

《朗文英语语法》第219页6.28.1

我们也可以在最高级之后用一关系从句。

这种从句经常伴随着带有…ever heard,met,read,seen等词的现在完成时:

„War and Peace‟is the longest book(that)I have ever read.

《战争与和平》是我所看过的书中最长的一部。

Penfold is the most conceited man(that/whom)I have ever met.

彭福尔德是我所遇到的人中最自负的一个。

7.This/It/That is the first/second…time(that)+从句用现完——1个

——该条目算是硬性的规定。

《牛津英语语法:即学即练》第30页

在It‟s/This is the first/second time之后,用现在完成时。

This is the first time we‟ve been to Scotland,so it‟s all new to us.

This is the second time Rachel has forgotten to give me a message.

I love this film.I think it‟s the fourth time I‟ve seen it.

《牛津英语用法指南》(第三版)第920页

This is the first that I‟ve heard her sing.这是我第一次听见她唱歌。

8.This/That/It is the only…(that)+从句用现完——1个

——本条目属于语法结构上的规定。

《牛津英语用法指南》(第三版)第920页

在以this/it/that is the first/second/third/only/best/worst等构建的句子里,要用现在完成时。

《朗文英语语法》第42页1.43关系从句之所指:

一个句子可以包括一个以上的关系词:

It‟s the only building(which)I‟ve ever seen which is made entirely of glass.

这是我所见过的唯一的一座全部用玻璃造的建筑物。(第一个which一般可以省略。)

9.不很常见的up to the present,to date,thus far——3个

相当于by now,so far结构,只是目前的教科书、语法书讲解得不多而已。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第1633页present词条

I have worked here from 2000 to the present.

我自2000年到现在一直在这儿工作。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第2310页up词条

Up to this point,we have been discussing our long-term goals.

直到现在为止,我们一直在谈论我们的长期目标。

Up to(=until)that time they had been fairly successful.他们一直相当成功。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第536页date词条

to date:up to now;until the present time迄今为止

We‟ve received no complaints to date.(=yet)迄今为止,我们没有接到任何投诉。

To date,most of their work has been preparatory.

迄今为止,他们做的工作大多是筹备方面的。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第767页far词条

thus far:until the present time:so far到目前为止

Thus far the results have been disappointing.到目前为止结果令人失望。

10.不很常见的long ago,from——2个

long ago属于常见的(违反含义与语法的结构,但事实上是属于)固定搭配;

from…例句不多,但也可见到from(介词)与现完搭配的实例——并非重要考点。

《韦氏高阶英汉双解词典》第1238页long词条

long since很久以前

questions that have long since been answered(=questions that were answered longago)

早已回答过的问题

an animal that has long since disappeared from this region

这一地区绝迹已久的一种动物

《COBUILD英汉双解词典》第1818页since词条

long since早就…

The time for talking has long ago since passed.空谈的时候早就过去了。

The truth had long since become apparent.真相早就昭然若揭。

《朗文英语词汇用法手册》第247页since词条

We‟ve been open since/from o‟clock.

我们从九点钟起就一直开门营业。(即:since/from从那时起,直至现在)

I‟ve been interested in flying since I was a boy.

我自儿时起,就对飞行感兴趣。(不能用from作连词)(since从那个…时候)

20xx年11月25日(欢迎实例——指正、补充)

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